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VI. Conclusion

I have sought in this paper to develop and apply economic theories of federalism and of comparative law. The economic theory of federalism sought to identify the economic factors that determine the benefits and costs of affiliating in a federation and how changes in real economic factors could cause predictable changes in the division of governmental responsibility between the central and member-state governments. The economic theory of comparative law sought to identify the economic factors that would cause different legal systems to solve the same societal problem through different or similar legal rules and institutions. My intention was to bring these two economic theories together in order to compare the federal systems of the United States and Canada. Clearly that ambitious goal remains out of reach. But I hope that we now have the beginnings of a profitable way of examining federal systems, of comparing them, and of explaining why they change in the ways that do.

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